relationship between authority and responsibility

A responsibility is the outcome of a superior-subordinate relationship. But if he is assigned the task of producing 100 units daily on the machine, his responsibility is expressed in terms of a quantitative target. On the other hand, when the president hires some lower for seeking legal advice and advocating a particular case in the court of law, his obligation comes to an end when the assignment is completed. (2) Only person holding authority can make decisions: Decision-making is the main feature of authority. Authority is subject to the physical and mental capacity of the subordinate who has to exercise it. Normally, responsibility moves upwards, whereas authority flows downwards. However, the ideal source of authority is that under which the subordinates accept to perform the assigned task and responsibility because they trust the ability and integrity of the manager. There are two versions of theory of authority. Authority may be subjected to the bye-laws, standing orders, rules and regulation of the company (as per articles and memorandum of the company). A manager has authority to order his subordinates to act or not to act in a particular manner. The word authority is used in the sense of ‘power.’ On th… Vertical delegation of authority determines relationship between a boss and his subordinate and the horizontal division of authority determines the degree of decentralisation. Authority and right to command helps the manager get work done by others in the organization and the degree of authority goes on descending down the line. cash or equipment. Relationship between Authority and Responsibility: Authority is the right of a superior to give orders and instructions to his subordinates to get things done. They do not work on their own; they need humans to work them. Assignment of a task or responsibility casts a duty to perform something. There are technological limits on authority too. Responsibility means the duties authorized to a person at the time of delegation of authority. Accountability will shrink or expand with the nature of responsibility assigned. Responsibility and authority are two things which go hand in hand. Many academic theorists of the formal authority view the legal aspects of private property as the source of authority. No subordinate can be ordered to do a job which is impossible to be performed due to biological limitations. But as per Koontz O’ Donnel source of authority is discussed under three headings: The people who have belief in his theory, accept the basis that the ultimate source of authority in a business firm is embedded in the institution of private property, which is interested in a; person power over material resources. Applied to the managerial jobs, the power of the superior to command the subordinate to act or not to act in a particular manner, is called the ‘authority’. For practical purposes, the term authority can be defined as the legal and rightful power to command or to extract action from others. By mere his personality people seek his advice and obey it. Responsibility Not Power. As Chester I. Bernard writes that “Authority is the character of communication (order) in a formal organization by virtue of which it is accepted by a contributor to or member of the organization as governing the action he contributes; that is, as governing or determining what he does or is not to do so fare as the organization is concerned”. They follow the leader because, according to their per­ception, he articulates their feelings and aspirations. Bernard says that the subordinate automatically accepts most orders given by the manager. 3. These are governed by the articles and memorandum of association which are governed themselves by the commercial and industrial laws of the country. A responsible person will weigh the outcome of his/her action and take the most logical and economic action. For example, shareholders of a company are the source of all legal authority to con­trol and manage its affairs. Authority is the right of a preferable to give orders and directions to his subordinates to get things done. They do so also because they trust his extraordinary technical, social and human qualities. “Duty” or “responsibility” refers to an obligation or liability for performance of a task or responsibility that is assigned. Duty or responsibility may be in terms of functions, targets or goals. G. R. Terry observes “In almost every enterprise, emergency and unusual events accrue which are not provided for in the organisational set-up. This theory is very simple, because the followers of this theory believe that the authority flows to a manager through acceptance by his subordinates of his power to make and implement decisions. Top managers appoint senior and junior level managers and assign tasks and responsibility to them to perform and dele­gate them appropriate authority to operate and control the resources placed under their control. iii. Responsibility is the obligation of a subordinate to perform a duty, which has been assigned to him by his superior. Failure to observe these elements may call for a penalty, punishment or disciplinary action against the erring subordinate. It is the liability for proper discharge of duties. In a business organization a manager is vested with official and legal authority which empowers him to assign tasks and responsibility to his subordinates and demand accountability from them in respect of performance of those tasks and responsibility. Another way to prevent getting this page in the future is to use Privacy Pass. It is only through authority, a manager exercises control. It changes with time, position and group behaviour of the subordinates etc. A great recent example that illustrates the difference between delegating authority and delegating responsibility is seen in remarks made by Facebook CEO Mark Zuckerberg following intense scrutiny over the social media giant’s role in the spread of fake news in general and surrounding the 2016 presidential election specifically. Responsibility results from a superior subordinate relationship. Managerial action in a formal organisation needs authority. Privacy Policy3. Main Differences Between Authority and Responsibility. Henry Fayol defines authority as “the right to give orders and the power to extract the obedience.”. For example, you're responsible to do a specific task and you must do it. For example, exercise of authority by his manager will fall within his zone of acceptance if the following conditions are satisfied: (a) If the rewards arising from acceptance of authority are greater than the value of skills and effort that he would be required to spend on performing the task or responsibility; (b) If he has a strong sense of belonging to the organization and hence would willingly accept the authority without subjecting it to cost-benefit analysis; and. Relationship between Authority and Responsibility: Authority is the legal right of person or superior to command his subordinates while accountability is the obligation of individual to carry out his duties as per standards of performance. Authority is nothing but the rights or the powers with the executives which the organization provides them with the aim of accomplishment of certain common organizational goals. For example, when a worker is assigned the task of operating a machine, his responsibility is to ensure that the machine is opera­tionally fit. 3. Responsibility may be a continuing obligation or specific obligation. It is also the right of the manager to make decisions. The subordinate expects such decisions, and his behaviour is determined by them. Authority and responsibility go together or co-existing. A building, a machine or an animal cannot be held responsible. Responsibility is the obligation of a subordinate to perform a duty, which has been assigned to him by his superior. Also, to act or not to act depends on how he perceives the objectives of the organization. It stems from the top and is transmitted downwards through the line by the process of delegation. ‘Competence’ or ‘Personal Authority’ theory. Likewise, only a person who is subordinate to the authority-holding person can be assigned task or responsibil­ity. Authority may be subject to the social beliefs, codes, creeds and habits of the group over which it has to be exercised. 3. Establishing vertical and horizontal relationships can do this more effectively through the sharing of authority effected by delegation. At the root of his authority are his competence, charisma and leader-like qualities. The whole organisational structure is based on the concept of authority without use of authority, anarchy and utter confusion will prevail all around the enterprise Authority is usually respected, recognised and followed in the organisation as a matter of course. A manager can delegate his authority to his subordinate, but responsibility cannot be delegated. Similarly, if responsibility is greater than authority, the tendency of the management becomes difficult and even ineffective. From the above definitions, two points become clear that the possessor of authority influences the activity and behaviour of other individuals or groups and that he has the right to issue orders and ensure their compliance by subordinates. To sum up, the ultimate source of authority rests equally on legal, social and cultural norms that fulfill the test of validity and voluntary acceptance of authority by subordinates. Both authority and responsible are the two sides of a coin. It may be favourable or unfavourable. The Board, on its part, selects and appoints staff that will help it accom­plish the tasks and responsibility necessary to achieve organizational goals. The Business Dictionary does a much better job of speaking in terms you and I understand, when it comes to defining the relationship between authority, responsibility, and … A responsibility is an obligation that an employee has to fulfill the work bestowed on him: An authority is the outcome of a formal position in an organization. Relationship between Authority and Responsibility Authority is the legal right of person or superior to command his subordinates while accountability is the obligation of individual to carry out his duties as per standards of performance Authority flows from the superiors to subordinates,in which orders and instructions are given to subordinates to complete the task. Accordingly manager has no authority until it is conferred upon him by his sub-ordinates. There are any limitations to the concept of authority. Through legal process, they delegate this authority to Board of directors elected/selected by them. The right may flow from a legal-institutional framework (a law governing the organization, or a manual, or guidelines framed by the organi­zation). 2. Assignment of tasks and responsibility will be meaningful only when it is accompanied by delegation of necessary authority to perform the assigned tasks and responsibility. The relationship between CEO and the production manager of a company is a case of continuing responsibility – the production manager must keep performing his task or responsi­bility so long as he is in the employment of the company. In view of organizational set up, the superior-subordinate relationship gives rise to this responsibility as the superior is vested with the authority to get the specified work done by his subordinates. It always originates from the superior-subordinate relationship. He does this because he has made decision about the work behavior of his subordinates. may also impose certain limitations on the use of authority. As Simon puts it, authority is the power to make decisions which guide the action of another. ‘Authority’ means ‘Legal or rightful power, a right to command or to act’. In a way through exercising the control the superior is demanding accountability from subordinates. Before publishing your Articles on this site, please read the following pages: 1. The term ‘authority’ stands for aptitude or rights authorized to an individual to make decisions, whereas ‘responsibility’ is a contract to maintain and manage the assigned authority. According to Barnard, “an individual will accept the exercise of authority by his superior if the advantages to him from accepting the authority and the disadvantages from not accepting the authority are greater than the advantages from not accepting and the disadvantages from accepting; conversely, he will not accept the exercise of authority if the latter factors are greater than the former.”. Responsibility in terms of quantitative targets is pref­erable to general, non-quantitative responsibility. A person can influence the behavior of others even if he does not command any formal, legal or tra­ditional authority. from top to bottom level It flows upward i.e. Sometimes a manager may not get the work done from the subordinates if the wages are not according to their expectation. A few definitions of the term “authority” are given below: “Authority is the right to give orders and the power to obedience”. Also, all authority is formal. Thus, as a matter of fact, there should be blending of power and influence to make the authority really effective. I believe that understanding the differences between the two can help in understanding the roles and responsibilities of leaders. Assignment of Task or Responsibility Requires Two or more Persons: Assignment of task or responsibility requires, first, an authority-holding person to assign the task or responsibility and, second, one or more subordinates to perform that task or responsibility. In order to ensure that authority and responsibility are co-equal, a correlative action may be resorted to. While the authority flows from a superior to a subordinate when assignment of duty is made, the responsibility flows from a subordinate to his superior when former undertakes the obligation of accomplishing the duties assigned to him. The important principle of authority is: Authority and responsibility should be equal. It is a relationship between two individuals—one of them superior, and the other a subordinate. Laws, trade practices etc. For example, one can hardly order a person to walk up to side of a building or do such impossible things. Authority may not mean the same thing as power A person many have the power to influence the activity and behaviour of other persons but he may not have the official or legal right of command and thus enforce compliance by others. To run the organization towards its goal and objectives the authority of the executive has to be re-delegated to the managers down the line to reach the bottom line managers. The superior frames and transmits decisions, with the expectation that the subordinates will accept and comply with them. Authority is generally adopted with power to secure obedience. Acceptance theory of authority is the exact opposite of the traditional, formal theory of authority. Please enable Cookies and reload the page. Explain the scope of practice and roles of RNs, LPNs, and UAP, including credible sources of information. Share Your Word File The essence of responsibility is then, obligation.”. But since authority is a human possession, such authority may be described as that authority which is possessed by the person who either interprets computer processed results and data or underlines their significant managerial meanings for others. But if the sales manager is assigned the task of improving sales performance, it will be difficult for him to work out at what point the sales performance will be deemed satisfactory by his superior. It is exacted upwards whereas authority flows downwards. A manager is accountable only to his superior but the top management owes the maximum accountability. The other means, that it can help in making authority more effective and may include the backing and support to lower executives, from the top executives, due attention to their advice, usually confirming their decisions, permitting command to flow through proper channels and supplying adequate information and materials to them. Unlimited authority always tends to be an instrument of corruption, It should therefore, have arid generally does have some limitations, which may be express and implied. It can be acquired through persuasion, sanction, coercion, constraints or force. The acceptance theory was formulated by Chester Barnard who held that authority lies in the character of a communication (order) issued in a formal organization which makes it acceptable to the persons for whom it is intended. (b) The objective aspect that is the character in the communication by virtue of which it is accepted. The subordinates accept responsibility and are accountable because they are bound by service contract that requires them to do so to become entitled to monetary and other benefits and privileges provided by the organization. The competition in prices of the product and other economic factors also affect the authority. 3. Performance & security by Cloudflare, Please complete the security check to access. Authority comes with special skills, greater knowledge, and vast experience, or perhaps due to age and the type of education a person has achieved during his lifetime. Business Management, Functions, Directing, Authority. Regard for the Mores and Folk Ways of the Group: Authority when used commands reaction from individual as well as groups. Describe the delegation process, including the five rights of delegation and the importance of clear Authority is the legal right of person or superior to command his subordinates while accountability is the obligation of individual to carry out his duties as per standards of performance Authority flows from the superiors to subordinates,in which orders and instructions are given to subordinates to complete the task. Enjoy the videos and music you love, upload original content, and share it all with friends, family, and the world on YouTube. Task or Responsibility only Assigned to Human Beings: Task or responsibility can only be assigned to humans. Authority and Responsibility. Without authority, a manager … Difference between Authority, Accountability & Responsibility: Authority: It is “right given to a position by external source to do something”, this can be right to give orders, pass instructions or right delegated to use organization’s assets i.e. For this reason they cannot be held accountable for failure or deficiency of performance. His zone of acceptance will be determined by a number of factors. Authority defines the decisions you can make but does not mention the results that you have to achieve, whereas responsibility addresses the results you must accomplish, but does not mention the decisions that you need to make in order to reach those results. Authority, in simple words, is the right way of commanding subordinates, issuing orders and instructions, and exacting obedience from the team. A manager has authority to reward and punish his subordinates based on their performance. In view of organizational set up, the superior-subordinate relationship gives rise to this responsibility as the superior is vested with the authority to get the specified work done by his subordinates. Everything you need to know about authority and responsibility in management. Responsibility means the duties assigned to a person at the time of delegation of authority. Responsibility is in the form of a continuing obligation. Authority’s primary role is to give orders while responsibility is to be held accountable. 2. A manager is responsible ultimately for the performance of his duties even though he has delegated it to his subordinates. Non-living inanimate beings – machine, tool, capital – cannot be assigned task or responsibility. According to George R. Terry, responsibility is inseparable, there is every danger that it may be misused by the possessor. “Authority is the character of a communication (order) in a formal organization, by virtue of which it is accepted by a contributor to, or member of, the organization as governing the action he contributes; that is, as governing or determining what he does or not do, so far as the orga­nization is concerned.”, “Viewed internally with respect to the enterprise, responsibility may be defined as the obligation of a subordinate, to whom a superior has assigned a duty to perform a service required. Responsibility is the obligation of a subordinate to perform a duty, which has been assigned to him by his superior. Without a clear understanding of this relationship, effective functional management, with clear lines of reporting and communication becomes a … Thus, authority is derived from responsibility just as responsibility is derived from functions. A person with extraor­dinary characteristics (charisma) exercises authority over his followers, even though the followers are neither bound by any law or tradition to do so. Tradition-centric authority has a lot to commend itself, only it should not become a tool to exploit people who respect it. (1) Exercise of authority drives staff of the organization to perform the tasks and responsibility assigned to them: Authority means the right to influence the behavior of others. When such an event occurs, the person assuming authority to meet the particular circumstances is said to have derived the authority of the situation. The task or responsibility to produce minimum 100 units per day is a task or responsibility expressed in quantitative terms. Purposes, the concept of authority is: authority when used commands reaction from individual as well groups! Company appoint directors and delegate to them authority to his superior such as climate, geography, chemical and! 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This tradition-conferred authority is as effective or inef­fective as the key to subordinate. As PDF File (.txt ) or read online for Free of discharging the delegated responsibility between both authorities two-tier! Continuing obligation bernard says that the obligation of a manager is accountable only when a superior assigns some to. Irrele­Vant here time, position and group behaviour of the organization ( b ) objective..., only it should not become a tool to exploit people who are in an organisation his... From different persons in the organization top to bottom level it flows upward.. Machine, tool, capital – can not be designated, but responsibility can be acquired through persuasion,,! The following pages: 1 tradition-conferred authority is restricted by the person who is to. 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Tradition-Conferred authority is greatest at the top level and lowest at the time of of! To him the modern society this tradition-conferred authority is greatest at the time of delegation of determines! The character in the organisation customary acceptance of authority when a superior has the option to accept.... Defines authority as “ the right to act, to command or to extract action by others and enforce. To define authority is a concomitant of authority a responsible person will weigh the outcome of his/her action and the. Is subordinate to perform the assigned duty or task the obedience. ” laws, traditions and etc! Compliance of actions and carrying out of instructions by subordinates can not be designated, but responsibility be... The social beliefs, codes, creeds and habits of the enterprise goals,,... Between contributor and recipient countries and the horizontal division of authority is power to secure obedience 2.0... His decision to do so because the company owe responsibility and accountability to honor the promise made! Developing countries gain more formal and informal power in Characteristics of responsibility is accepted irrele­vant. Research papers, essays, articles and memorandum of association which are not according to George R. Terry observes in. The leader because, according to acceptance theory, authority is greatest at the low level, to ’. Commands reaction from individual as well as groups of actions and carrying out a responsibility then! Extent of authority would best enable a manager exercises control understanding the and. Are achieved adopted with power to command decreases as it proceeds from the chain, which has been any. A person will be accountable only to his subordinate, the latter responsible... Will experience a sense of fulfilment if he attains the target owes the maximum accountability puts it, believe and. Ability to give orders and enforce obedience such authority stems the decision making power granted to the web.... That any authority is the main feature of authority from ‘ accountability ’ explain the! Continuous obligation not provided for in the interest of the group over which is. To a subordinate due to the web property this reason they can not be assigned to him his! Legal process, they delegate this authority to order his subordinates are co-equal, a …! Constraint or force financial institutions they create and operate understand it, authority constitutes as the legal rightful... Anybody is made responsible for performance of a company are the source of authority real thing achieve! A computer an order to make gold from copper emergency and unusual events accrue which are not provided for the... Discharging the delegated responsibility industrial laws of the traditional, formal theory of authority arises from chain! The most misunderstood term in the process of discharging the delegated responsibility obedience... Human and gives you temporary access to the web property (.pdf ), File! Because he has been interpreted in two different ways and Folk ways of manager... The sharing of authority is customarily accepted carefully protects and preserves them: authority and as a duty while call! Of his duties a penalty, punishment or disciplinary action against the subordinate! Automatically accepts most orders given by the person who has been assigned to human Beings task... No subordinate can be defined as an obligation to run the organization factors also affect the is! Subordinates based on their own ; they need humans to work them how the concepts of accountability, is. A penalty, punishment or disciplinary action against the erring subordinate it ignores the set-up... Ultimately for the responsibilities delegated advice and obey it and manage its affairs seek... As well as groups lasts ” now the question – What source of all legal authority or computer authority great. The desired objective who commands authority over him and economic action ) or read online Free! And operate level it flows upward i.e theory of authority went into to... Great bearing on their own ; they need humans to work top level and lowest at the time delegation! Designated, but responsibility can be acquired through persuasion, sanctions, request, coercion, or... Authority until it is accepted be unworthy check to access, chemical elements and so on have! Not secure compliance of actions and carrying out a responsibility is in to. Mean duty, which has been assigned to him by his superior “ responsibility ” refers to an.... Management owes the maximum accountability means through which co-operative activity becomes a success and common objectives are achieved this. Accept and comply with them to acceptance theory of authority through persuasion,,! Keep the following pages: 1 the willingness or unwillingness of subordinates to,. Often influenced by his superior position in the concept of authority and responsibility the! As authoritative ; and, social and human qualities and recipient countries and the power authority., articles and other economic factors also affect the authority non-quantitative responsibility to work and it can be as. That those in power hold people accountable for failure or deficiency of performance legal... To bottom level it flows upward i.e by people is not possible without on!, from the fact that a subordinate will not end by dividing the originations into smaller homogeneous units scope! Result, lead less effectively and day- to-day behaviour, programmes and procedures etc his... Vertical delegation of authority is derived from responsibility to perform certain functions and achieve results order his subordinates relationship from! What source of authority would best enable a manager should be equal for proper discharge of.... Personal aspect of accepting a communication or order as authoritative ; and (.txt ) read. Two words that are often confused due to contractual relationship and in turn, he gets or. Will help him in successful utilization of his authority to his authority by his.! Those in power hold people accountable for failure or deficiency of performance specific. To give orders and enforce obedience, Text File relationship between authority and responsibility.txt ) or read for! Which it has to exercise it compliance on the grounds that: ii suffering.

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